Patello-Femoral Syndrome

This consists of a group of moropho-functional alterations that results in the onset of anterior knee pain.

The patella moves inside a cavity, dug into the distal part of the femur; bone surfaces slide over one another, facilitated by cartilage covering them and are guided by the tension of certain muscle groups like the patellar tendon and alar ligaments. A small alteration of form or function in ofe of these components is enough to increase the pressure on one part of the patellofemoral joint with consequent onset of pain or, even worse, instability which can lead to the patella leaving its seat in painful episodes of dislocation. Diagnosis relies on support from X-rays and CT or MRI scans. Rehabilitation begins in the gym, but continues through everyday like when patients will need to put small changes into place to maintain full functionality. The only real cause for surgical treatments is the presence of major patellar instability, characterized by habitual dislocation of the patella or its on-going mapostion. Surgical interventions include the realignment of the extensor apparatus, which can be performed arthroscopically or with open surgery. There are many ways to deal with this as the origin of instability is often due to many different factors. Howcer, this decision is always taken by an orthopedic surgeon specialised in knee surgery, who will always account for all the different factors affecting the patient. After, surgery rehabilitation aims to restore full function in the knee, first resolving the inflammation, then recovering the range of motion, followed by muscle strength, and finally the more sophisticated movements used in everyday life or the patient’s chosen sport. 

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